Ibn Taymiyyah on The Created (Kawnee) and Religious (Shar'iyy) Ways and Means (Asbaab) and Their Resultant Effects in Relation to al-Qadar
Tuesday, December 01 2009 - by Abu.Iyaad
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Affirming The Deenee Shar'iyy (Religious Legislative) and Kawnee, Qadaree (Universal, Creational) asbaab (Causes, Ways And Means) And the Effects Tied to Them

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said as occcurs in Majmoo' al-Fataawaa (8/68-69)

That is because Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta'aalaa) knows the (realities) of the affairs as they are, and He has made asbaab (causes, ways, means) for (all things), on account of which these things occur. So He knows that they occur by those asbaab, just like He knows that this person is granted (offspring) when he has intercourse with a woman and impregnates her. And if such a one said, "If Allaah knows that I will have offspring, then there is no need for intercourse", then he is a fool, because Allaah knows that what He has decreed will occur by way of intercourse. So when he (this person) knows that tillage will grow for him on account of the water he nurtures (the soil) with and what he plants of seeds, if he was to say, "When He knows that it will occur, then there is no need for planting", he is an astray ignorant. Because Allaah knows that it will occur by way of that (i.e. the planting of the seed). Likewise, when Allaah knows that this person (in his hunger) will be satisfied with food, and this one (in his thirst) will be quenched with water, and this one will die through killing, then it is inevitable that there are asbaab (about) which Allaah knows, that these matters occur through them...

...And likewise, Paradise. Allaah created it for the people (having) Imaan in Him, and obedience to Him. So whoever He decreed would be amongst them, He made Imaan and obedience easy for him. Thus, whoever said, "I will enter Paradise, whether I am a believer or a disbeliever, if He knows that I am from its people", then he is a fabricator against Allaah in that. For Allaah knew that He will enter Him into it by way of Imaan. So if he does not have Imaan, then this person will not be the one about whom Allaah knew that He will enter Paradise. Rather, whoever is not a believer, but is a disbeliever, then Allaah knows that he is from the people of the Fire, not from the people of Paradise.

For this reason, He ordered the people with du'aa, and isti'aanah with Allaah, and other such asbaab. And whoever said, "I do not supplicate or ask, out of reliance upon al-Qadar", then he is in error also, because Allaah made du'aa and asking from the asbaab by which His forgiveness and mercy, and His guidance, aid and sustenance are obtained. And when some good has been decreed for the servant, he will attain it by du'aa, it will not be attained without du'aa. And whatever Allaah has decreed, and knows about the situations of the servants, and their end-results, then Allaah has decreed that through asbaab which steer the maqaadeer (decreed matters) to their (appointed) times. Hence, there is nothing in the dunyaa or the aakhirah, except with a sabab (cause, way), and Allaah is the Creator of the asbaab (causes) and the musabbabaat (effects).

Note: Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah oppose the heretics, the Ash'arites, who deny that Allaah has put asbaab within the creation through which effects are realised and who also deny that there is wisdom (al-hikmah) behind Allaah's actions, which they deceptively called al-gharad (objective, goal), as is their habit, for when Ahl us-Sunnah say Allaah is above the Throne, they say that is al-jihah and al-makaan, and they say Allaah is not attributed with direction or place, so they distort the words and change them from what they ought to be. Likewise with affirmation of wisdom (al-hikmah) in Allaah's actions, which is clear in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, they change it to al-gharad and so they say, Allaah is free of having objectives, goals.

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