Shaykh as-Sa'dee on The Created (Kawnee) and Religious (Shar'iyy) Ways and Means (Asbaab) and Their Resultant Effects in Relation to al-Qadar
Filed under: Belief in the Divine Decree
Tuesday, December 01 2009 - by Abu.Iyaad
Key topics: Asbaab Ways And Means Qadar Al-Qadar
Affirming The Deenee Shar'iyy (Religious Legislative) and Kawnee, Qadaree (Universal, Creational) asbaab (Causes, Ways And Means) And the Effects Tied to Them
Shayk Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Sa'dee (rahimahullaah) said:
And many people think that affirmation of the asbaab negates Imaan in al-Qadaa wal-qadar, and this is a very repugnant mistake, and this (claim) only returns back upon al-qadar with nullification (of it), and it is a nullification of al-Hikmah also. And it is as if this person (thinking this) says and believes that Imaan in al-qadar is the belief in the existence of things independent of their legislative and creational asbaab. And this is a negation of them, for as we have mentioned, they (the asbaab) [are such that] Allaah has tied the creation, some parts of it to others, and has arranged parts of it with others, and made parts of it to come into existence by way of others.
So do you - O one who thinks (this) in ignorance - say that it is befitting that the building is made to come into existence without any construction, and the seeds, fruits, and plants are made to come into existence without tilling (the soil) and watering, and that children and offspring are made to come into existence without nikaah (intercourse), and that (people) are entered into Paradise without Imaan and righteous actions, and that (people) are entered into the Fire without disbelief and disobedience?!
With this thought you have nullified al-qadar, and you have nullified al-Hikmah alongside it. Do you not know that Allaah, with His wisdom, and His perfect ability, power, has made effects to have causes (behind them), and maqaasid (desired goals) to have paths and avenues by which they are obtained? And He has affirmed this in the fitrah and the intellect, just like He has affirmed it in the legislation, and just as He carried this out in the reality (of creation). For He has given every single thing, its particular characteristics that befit it, then He guided every created thing to whatever it was created for, amongst the various types of striving, movement, and variety of different activities. And He constructed the affairs of the world and hereafter upon that amazing and creatively astonishing organisation [the creation], that testifies firstly, to the perfect ability and the perfect wisdom for Allaah, and secondly it made the servants to testify that by way of this organisation, facilitation, and direction, He made those who act to embark upon their actions, and energised them into their (varying) occupations.
Therefore, when the seeker of the hereafter knows that it will not be sought except by Imaan and righteous actions, and abandoning the opposite of that, he will strive his utmost in actualising Imaan, and its great many beneficial constituents, and he will strive in every righteous action that will lead him to the Hereafter, and facing that he will avoid disbelief and disobedience, and he will hasten to sincere repentance from everything he fell into from that.
And the farmer, when he knows that produce will not be obtained except by tilling (the land) and watering, and complete observation (i.e. care), he will strive his utmost in every way that will make his crop to grow, increase, and to become perfect, and to repel the various harms from it.
And the person of manufacturing when he knows that the manufactured things, in all their variety, and their benefits, are not obtained except by learning the particular craft, then being skilled in it, then working by it, he will strive in that. And whoever desired to obtain children, or the growth of his cattle, then he will work and strive in that, and it is the same for all other matters.
"Ar-Riyaadh an-Naadirah", pp.125-126, by way of "al-Imaan bil-Qadaa wal-Qadar" of Muhammad bin Ibraaheem al-Hamad (pp.64-65)
Note: Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah oppose the heretics, the Ash'arites, who deny that Allaah has put asbaab within the creation through which effects are realised and who also deny that there is wisdom (al-hikmah) behind Allaah's actions, which they deceptively called al-gharad (objective, goal), as is their habit, for when Ahl us-Sunnah say Allaah is above the Throne, they say that is al-jihah and al-makaan, and they say Allaah is not attributed with direction or place, so they distort the words and change them from what they ought to be. Likewise with affirmation of wisdom (al-hikmah) in Allaah's actions, which is clear in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, they change it to al-gharad and so they say, Allaah is free of having objectives, goals.
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