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A Brief Historical Look at When and Who First Spoke with the Innovation that the Speech of Allaah is Created
None of the Companions (radhi Allaahu 'anhum) have narrated anything in this affair, and this deviation was unknown in their times. They believed in everything that was revealed in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of the Prophet (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) regarding that which Allaah described Himself with and that which the Messenger affirmed for him, from His Speech, His Hearing, His Seeing and other than that.
Shaikh al-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah (d. 728H) stated in Minhaaj as-Sunnah (6/336):
And the intent is that the Sahaabah, may Allaah be pleased with them, never fought each other due to any difference in a fundamental from the fundamentals (qawaa'id) of Islaam. And they did not differ in anything from the principles of Islaam; not in the Attributes (sifaat of Allaah); not in the Pre-Decree (al-qadar); not in the affairs of titles and passing rulings; and not in the affairs of rulership.
Who were the First to Openly State their Denial of the Speech of Allaah?
What is shown in the books of 'aqeedah  is that the first who is known to have made apparent his denial of the Speech of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, was al-Ja'd Ibn Dirham (ex. 124H) and this was at the end of the era of Banu Umayyah.
So when he made open his wicked speech, the rulers of Banu Umayyah called for him, so he fled to Koofah in Iraaq. He was arrested and then executed on the day of 'Eid al-Adhaa by Khaalid ibn Abdullaah al-Qusree - a representative and worker of Banu Umayyah in Koofah. During the course of his Khutbah to the people, he said:
O people! Sacrifice! May Allaah accept your sacrifices, and indeed I will sacrifice ja'd ibn Dirham! Indeed he claims that Allaah did not take Ibraaheem as a friend (i.e. as a khaleel); and that He did not speak to Moosaa directly - High is Allaah, the Exalted, the Great, above what al-Ja'd is saying... then al-Qasree descended and slaughtered al-Ja'd at the foot of the mimbar. 
However before this misguided one was executed he passed his innovation on to Jahm Ibn Safwaan of Tirmidh (executed in 128H) whome he met in Koofah. He was then banished to Tirmidh and remained their until he was executed in Asbahaan or (as it is said) in Marw by Salam ibn Ahwaz.
Then this innovated speech passed from the followers of Jahm to Bishr al-Mareesee (d. 218H) who was the head of the Jahmiyyah and their scholar in his time. And he is Bishr ibn Ghiyaath ibn Abee Kareemah al-Mareesee. He was from the people of opinion (As'haab ur-Rayy) who busied himself with 'ilm al-kalaam (intellect-based theological rhetoric) and he claimed, amongst other evil saying that have been narrated from him, that the Qur'aan was created - the scholars charged him with unbelief due to these sayings. The sect known as the Mareesiyyah are ascribed to him. 
Then Ahmad Ibn Abee Duwaad (d. 240H) took this corrupt 'aqeedah from Bishr. And it was he who incited the ruler al-Ma'moon al-'Abbaasee to set up the mihnah (i.e. the inquisition) and the compelling of the people to say that the Qur'aan is created. Many, many people were put to trial and were compelled to agree - however the Imaam of the Sunnah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullaah, died 241H), remained steadfast upon the truth and remained patience even though he was beaten and tortured.
So we know from that which has has preceeded that the first to propound the belief in the 'negation of the Speech of Allaah' from those who ascribed themselves to Islaam was al-Ja'd Ibn Dirham (executed 124H); and we can see that he had successors who inherited this doctrine from him and led astray many many people. However, do we have any indication where al-Ja'd Ibn Dirham learnt his evil doctrine?
We have that which has been mentioned by Ibn Asaakir and others that:
Al-Ja'd Ibn Dirham took his saying from Bayaan ibn Sam'aan; and Bayaan ibn Sam'aan  took it from Taaloot the son of the sister of Labeed ibn al-A'sam; and that Taaloot took it from his maternal uncle Labeed - and this is the Jew who did magic upon Allaah's Messenger (salallaahu 'alaihi wassallam) and he used to say that the Tawraat was created!
From this you can see how corruption entered the Ummah and who are the true founders of those sects that outright deny, distort and explain away the lofty Attributes of Allaah, from them His Speech (kalaam). May Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, protect us from misguidance in all of it's forms - and all praise is due to Allaah, Lord of the Worlds.
 See Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah 2/382, al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah 9/35, Fatawaa Ibn Taimiyyah 12/26, al-Wasaa'il fee Ma'rifatil-Awaa'il 121.
 See al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah 9/35, Mizaan al-I'tidaal of adh-Dhahabee 1/399.
 See his biography in Taareekh Baghdaad of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee 7/56, Wafayaat al-A'yaan of Ibn Khalakaan 1/277, al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah of Ibn Katheer 10/281, Mizaan al-I'tidaal of adh-Dhahabee 1/322, and Siyar A'laam an-Nubalaa of adh-Dhahabee 10/200.
 Siyar A'laam an-Nubalaa of adh-Dhahabee 11/169.
 And he is Bayaan ibn Sam'aan an-Nahdee from Banee Tameem. He appeared in Iraaq sometime after 100H. He claimed that 'Ali (radhi Allaahu 'anhu) was divine and that 'Ali had within him a divine portion united with his human portion; and then divinity passed after him to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and then to Abu Haashim the son of Ibn al-Hanafiyyah and then after him to Bayaan ibn Sam'aan. Ibn Numair said: "Khaalid ibn Abdul-Malik al-Qusree executed him and burnt him in fire." See Mizaan al-I'tidaal 1/357.
 al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah 9/350, Al-Wasaa'il fi Ma'rifatil-Awaa'il of as-Suyootee 131-132.
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