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Concerning Faith (Eemaan) in Allaah - Part 2 of 2
Filed under: Belief in Allaah
Saturday, March 13 2010 - by Abu.Iyaad
Key topics: Faith In Allaah Belief In Allaah

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Kitaab Usool al-Imaan

The book to the right is "Kitaab Usool al-Imaan" (The Book of the Foundations of Faith) and it has been authored collectively by Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee, Shaykh Abdur-Razzaaq al-Abbaad, and the two Shaykhs, Alee Naasir al-Faqeehee, and Ahmad bin Atiyyah al-Ghaamidee aided in checking it and helping to put it together in its form and sequence. The book was printed by the Qur'an printing complex, in the city of Madinah (1421H).

The book provides an excellent foundation for knowing and understanding the six pillars of faith (Eemaan), and is great for Muslims and new Muslims, as well as non-Muslims wanting to get a grasp of what Muslims believe (from Muslims themselves!). The content in this article has been based around the relevant section in this book (pp. 9-10) and has been adapted for easier reading. Additional quotes, references and notes may be provided for further benefit and understanding.

The following section is not from the book itself, but is added here due to its relevance, and to provide more understanding.

Concerning Belief, faith in Allaah - Part 2

In Part 1 we established that faith in Allaah consists of singling out Allaah in His actions (Ruboobiyyah) and singling out Allaah in His right to be worshipped (Uloohiyyah) and singling out Allaah in His Names and Attributes (Asmaa was-Sifaat). In this article we want to complete this subject. The first part was related to what we affirm in our belief in Allaah. In this second part, we are going to focus on what we negate from Allaah, or what Allaah has negated for Himself with respect to faith in Him in general.

This is summarised in the negation of eight matters - all of which are found in the Qur'an, and we can divide them into two sets of four:

  • The negation of a nidd (rival) for Allaah
  • The negation of a samiyy (namesake) for Allaah
  • The negation of a mithl (likeness) for Allaah
  • The negation of an kofu' (equal) for Allaah

As for the second set, then it relates to the nullification of all of the roots (foundations) of Shirk:

  • The negation of sole ownership of anything in the creation
  • The negation of sharing or partnering with Allaah in ownership of anything in the creation
  • The negation of their being any aiders or helpers to Allaah with respect to management of His creation
  • The negation of their being any benefit through intercession, except with His permission

So the point here is that after we have affirmed faith in Allaah and acknowledged His Ruboobiyyah (Lordship), and His Uloohiyyah (right to be worshipped alone), and His Asmaa was-Sifaat (Names and Attributes), then we also negate that He has any 1) rival, or 2) namesake, or 3) likeness, or 4) equal, or 5) that anyone independently owns anything in the creation, or 6) shares with Allaah in it, or 7) aids or helps Him with respect to it, 8) or can bring about benefit through intercession independently, without the granting of permission (and pleasure) of Allaah.

The Qur'anic Proofs

Let us know present the proofs for the above, and they are all from the Qur'an and they have been spoken of extensively by the Scholars in the books of Tawhid and aqidah.

The Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

فَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ لِلّهِ أَندَاداً وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الأَرْضَ فِرَاشاً وَالسَّمَاء بِنَاء وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاء مَاء فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقاً لَّكُمْ

Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allaah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped). (Al-Baqarah 2:22)

And the Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا

Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, so worship Him (Alone) and be constant and patient in His worship. Do you know of any who is a namesake to Him (meaning one who deserves the like of His Name)? (Maryam 19:65)

And the Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

There is none [that is] a likeness to Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (Ash-Shura 42:11)

And the Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًاأَحَدٌ

And there is none co-equal to Him. (Al-Ikhlas 112:4)

And as for the other four they are mentioned two verses together, and Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) has written on this subject, and he has explained that Allaah has invalidated all the roots of Shirk in this passage:

قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا لَهُمْ فِيهِمَا مِن شِرْكٍ وَمَا لَهُ مِنْهُم مِّن ظَهِير. وَلَا تَنفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا لِمَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ حَتَّى إِذَا فُزِّعَ عَن قُلُوبِهِمْ قَالُوا مَاذَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ قَالُوا الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرٍُ

Say: "Call upon those whom you assert (to be associate gods) besides Allaah, they do not possess even the weight of an atom, either in the heavens or on the earth, nor have they any share in either, nor is there for Him any supporter from among them. And no intercession profits with Him except for him whom He permits. (Saba' 34:22-23)

Ibn al-Qayyim has nicely summed this up in his commentary on the verses as occurs in Madaarij us-Saalikeen (1/351):

Thus, the Mushrik, he takes something as his object of worship on account of what he believes that on account of it he will attain some benefit. And benefit cannot be brought about except from one who has any of these four characteristics:

  • Either an owner (maalik) of whatever his worshipper seeks from him

  • So if he is not an owner, then he is a partner (shareek) to the owner [in what he owns]

  • And if he is not a partner to him [in what he owns], then he is a helper (mu'een) and an aider (dhaheer) to him

  • And if he is not an aide and nor a helper, then he is one who intercedes with him (i.e. the owner).

So, He, the Sublime, negated all of these four levels, in a successive manner, moving from the one that is the highest to the one that is less than it. So he negated dominion, (mulk, i.e. ownership), and partnership (sharikah), and aiding, assisting (mudhaaharah), and intercession (shafaa'ah) which the Mushrik thinks to be so [but in reality it is Shirk]. And then He affirmed the [true, affirmed] intercession in which there is no portion for the Mushrik, and this is the intercession that occurs with His permission.

So sufficient is this verse as light, and evidence, and deliverance, and purity in Tawheed, and cutting off the foundations of Shirk, and its underlying roots, for the one who understands it.

So in conclusion, there is a rejection of the claim of there being the right of worship for any god or gods upon the (false belief) of them owning something, in its own right, from the creation. This is a refutation of the foundation of the Shirk (paganism) of certain cultures, civilizations and nations, historically and present.

Then there is the negation of the claim of the right of worship for deities upon the (false belief) that they share in the ownership of something in the creation (along with Allaah). This is also a refutation of another level of the paganism of certain cultures, civilizations and nations, historically and present.

Then there is the negation of the claim of the right of worship for deities upon the (false belief) that they aid and help Allaah in the regulation and management of His creation. This is a refutation of yet another level of the paganism of certain cultures, civilizations and nations, historically and present.

Finally, there is the negation of the claim of the right of worship for deities upon the (false belief) that they are able to effect intercession independently, on their own right, without the permission of Allaah (for them to intercede) and secondly (what is found in other verses), without their knowledge of Allaah's pleasure with the one for whom they are interceding for. This is a refutation of a further level of the shirk that is found amongst many civilizations, religions and cultures, and is also found amongst those ascribing to Islam.

Summary

Our belief in Allaah is summarized by the affirmation that He, after acknowledging the His existence, is singled out and unique in His actions in creating and regulating the universe (Ruboobiyyah), that He is singled out in the right to be worshipped alone (Uloohiyyah), that He is singled out with His Beautiful Names and Lofty Attributes (Asmaa was-Sifaat). And thereafter, we negate that there is for Him any nidd (rival), samiyy (namesake), mithl (likeness), kofu' (co-equal), or that there is any mulk (ownership) alongside His, or sharikah (partnership) to Him in His dominion, or mudhaaharah (aid, support) for Him in His dominion, or shafaa'ah (intercession) with Him, without His permission and acceptance. And we can take this as a framework for grasping Tawhid and for explaining Tawhid (Monotheism) to others and refuting whatever opposes it of false religion and false worship - and this is what all the Prophets and Messengers called to.



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