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Concerning Faith (Eemaan) in Allaah - Part 1 of 2
Filed under: Belief in Allaah
Saturday, December 05 2009 - by Abu.Iyaad
Key topics: Faith In Allaah Belief In Allaah

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Kitaab Usool al-Imaan

The book to the right is "Kitaab Usool al-Imaan" (The Book of the Foundations of Faith) and it has been authored collectively by Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee, Shaykh Abdur-Razzaaq al-Abbaad, and the two Shaykhs, Alee Naasir al-Faqeehee, and Ahmad bin Atiyyah al-Ghaamidee aided in checking it and helping to put it together in its form and sequence. The book was printed by the Qur'an printing complex, in the city of Madinah (1421H).

The book provides an excellent foundation for knowing and understanding the six pillars of faith (Eemaan), and is great for Muslims and new Muslims, as well as non-Muslims wanting to get a grasp of what Muslims believe (from Muslims themselves!). The content in this article has been based around the relevant section in this book (pp. 9-10) and has been adapted for easier reading. Additional quotes, references and notes may be provided for further benefit and understanding.

Concerning Belief, faith in Allaah

Belief in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, is one of the most important of the foundations of Eemaan (belief, faith), and it is the greatest of them in importance. It is the foundation of all the foundations of faith, and its pillar and support. The rest of the foundations of faith branch off from it, are based upon it and return back to it.

Belief in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic is to believe in His complete singularity and uniqueness (wahdaaniyyah) in:

  • His ruboobiyyah (lordship over the creation),
  • His uloohiyyah (worthiness to be worshipped),
  • His asmaa was-sifaat (names and attributes).

Belief in Allaah is based upon these three foundations, rather the upright [monotheistic] way of life that is Islaam has been called "Tawheed" (Pure Monotheism) because it is based upon [the truth of fact] that Allaah is unique, one, singled out in His dominion (over the creation), His actions, not having any partner therein, and unique, one, singled out in His Essence, His Names and His Attributes, there is no equal or peer for Him, and unique, one, singled out in His worthiness of being worshipped, there is not rival to Him (in His worthiness and right to be worshipped).

From the above it should be known that the Tawheed of the Prophets and Messengers, such as Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (peace and salutations be upon them all) is divided into three types:

Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah: This is affirm that Allaah, the Most High, is the Lord (ar-Rabb) of everything, its owner, its creator, its provider, sustainer. That He gives life, takes life, that He grants all benefit and causes all harm. That he is singled out in responding to calls of distress. All of the affairs belong to Him, and return back to Him and all goodness is in His Hand. He does not have any partner in any of that.

Tawheed of Uloohiyyah: This is to single out Allaah with meekness, submission, love, humility, bowing, prostrating, sacrificing, making oath, and all of the various types of worship. He has no partner or rival in His worthiness and right to be worshipped with all the various forms and types of worship.

Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat: This is to single out Allaah, the Most High, with whatever He named and described Himself with in His Book and upon the tongue of His Prophet (alayhis salaam), and to absolve and purify Him of shortcomings, defects and likeness to the creation in what relates to that which is unique to Him (of Names and Attributes). Further to affirm that Allaah is all-knowing (al-Aleem) of every single thing, that He is all-powerful (al-Qadeer) over everthing, that he is the Ever-Living (al-Hayy), the Self-Established upon which everything else is dependent (al-Qayyum), who is not overtaken by neither sleep nor slumber. He has the penetrative, effective, operative will (in His creation), and far reaching wisdom (in all that He does, decrees and judges, commands and prohibits). That He is all-Hearing (as-Samee') and all-Seeing (al-Baseer), Compassionate (Ra'oof), Merciful (Raheem). He has ascended over the Throne, and possesses all of the dominion (of creation). He is the King, the Master (al-Malik), the Most Pure, Holy (al-Quddoos), The Flawless, the Source of Peace (as-Salaam), the Remover of Fear and Granter of Tranquility (al-Mu'min), The Protecter (al-Muhaimin), The Mighty (al-Azeez), the Compeller, Restorer (al-Jabbaar), the Supremely Great (al-Mutakabbir), free and sublime is He of what they associate with Him (of partners). And all the various other Names and Attributes that He is described with in the Book and the Sunnah.

There are many evidences for each of these aspects of Tawheed in the Book and the Sunnah. The whole of the Qur'an, in its subject matter is regarding Tawheed and its rights, and its recompense, and regarding Shirk (associationism), its people and their recompense.

These three aspects of Tawheed have been pointed out by the Scholars of Islaam, past and present, after a complete, detailed in-depth study of the texts of the Book and the Sunnah, which has led to the realization of the legislative reality that this is the Tawheed (Monotheism) that has been requested from the servants, which is belief and faith in His uniqueness, singularity and oneness in his Lordship (ruboobiyyah), His worthiness of being worshipped (uloohiyyah) alone and in His Names and Attributes. So whoever does not bring all of these affairs collectively, then he has not actualized faith and is not a believer.

Proofs From the Qur'an

The proofs for the above are abundant, we shall mention some prominent ones. First, the very first chapter of the Qur'an.

الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ. الرَّحْمـنِ الرَّحِيمِ. مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ. إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds (mankind, jinns and all that exists). The Most Beneficent (full of mercy), the Merciful (to His servants). The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense. You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)

In this verse we see affirmation of Allaah's Ruboobiyyah, some of His names, such as ar-Rahmaan, ar-Raheem, al-Maalik (the Owner), and a statement of Tawhid stating that He alone is worshipped and sought for aid.

Then we have the very last chapter of the Qur'an:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ. مَلِكِ النَّاسِ. إِلَهِ النَّاسِ

Say: "I seek refuge with (Allýh) the Lord of mankind. The King of mankind. The Ilah (deity) of mankind..." (An-Nas 114:3)

Here we have the Ruboobiyyah of Allaah, then a name al-Malik (the King) mentioned in another verse too, and then Uloohiyyah (the deity), and this is an indication of what constitutes Tawhid, of singling Him out as the Lord, as the only deity worthy of worship and in the Beautiful Names (and Lofty Attributes).

So we have the very first chapter, and the very last chapter incorporating the comprehensive Tawhid that is explained in detail in what is between them both of the rest of the Qur'an.

Then there is the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا

Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, so worship Him (Alone) and be constant and patient in His worship. Do you know of any who is a namesake to Him (meaning one who deserves the like of His Name)? (Maryam 19:65)

So he we see Tawhid mentioned comprehensively, affirmation that He is the Lord of the heavens and the Earth (Ruboobiyyah), the command to worship Him alone and to be patient and steadfast upon that (Uloohiyyah), and the negation of there being any namesake for Him (His uniqueness in His Names and Attributes), and a namesake means one that deserves to have the same name (on account of having the same qualities). So again, we have the mention of Tawhid comprehensively. And then this is found often in the Qur'an, and perhaps this is sufficient for our purposes here.

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