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Ibn al-Qayyim: Distinguishing Between al-Maqdiyy wal-Maqdoor and al-Qadaa wal-Qadr in Loving and Hating What Occurs from al-Qadr
Filed under: Belief in the Divine Decree
Saturday, December 05 2009 - by Abu.Iyaad
Key topics: Divine Decree Al-Qadaa Wal-Qadar Predestination Ordainment

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Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said:

And as for the speech on "Pleasure with (all of) al-Qadaa (the Ordainment, Decree)", then it is said:

Firstly: By which (revealed) Book, or with which Sunnah, or with which understanding, have you come to know the obligation of being pleased with everything that He ordains and decrees? Rather, (just even) the permissiblity of that, let alone its obligation? This is the Book of Allaah, the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wasallam), and the proofs of the intellect, and there is nothing in them of the command to that, and nor to its permissibility.

Rather, from al-maqdiyy (the ordained matters) is that which He is pleased with, and from it is that which angers Him and causes Him to hate. So therefore, we do not be pleased with every qadaa, just like the One who ordains His decrees, free is He from imperfection, is not pleased with it. Rather from al-qadaa is that which angers Him, just like [there are] amongst the (various) decreed entities (i.e. beings) those upon whom anger and hatred befalls, and who are cursed and rebuked.

And it is said, secondly: There are two matters, "qadaa", and this is an action (fi`l) established with the Self of the Lord, the Exalted, and "maqdiyy", and this is the performed action (maf`ool), separate from Him. So al-qadaa, all of it is goodness, and it is justice and wisdom, hence, all of it is to be pleased with. And al-maqdiyy is of two types. From it is that which is to be pleased with, and from it is that which is not to be pleased with. And this is the reply of the one who said that al-fi`l (the action) is other than al-maf`ool (that which is performed), and that al-qadaa is other than al-maqdiyy.

And as for the one who said that al-fi`l is the very same thing as al-maf`ool, and al-qadaa is the very same thing as al-maqdiyy, then it is not possible for him to reply with this answer.

And it is said, thirdly: al-Qadaa has two aspects, the first of them: Its relationship to the Lord, the Exalted, and its ascription to Him. So from this angle, all of it is to be pleased with. The second angle: Its relationship with the servant, and its ascription to him. So from this angle, it is divided into that which is to be pleased with and that which is not to be pleased with.

An example of that: Taking (someone's) life - for example - it has two considerations. So from the (angle) that Allaah has decreed it, and has ordained it, written and willed it, and has made it to be the appointed term for the (one) killed, and the end of his life, one is pleased with it. And from the (angle) that it occurred from the killer, and he embarked upon it, and earned it, and proceeded upon it out of his choice, and disobeyed Allaah with his action, then one is angered by it, and it does not please him.

Source: "Madaarij as-Saalikeen" (1/268-169)

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